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Open Access Open Badges Research Article

Experimental Assessment of the Reliability for Watermarking and Fingerprinting Schemes

Frédéric Cérou, Teddy Furon* and Arnaud Guyader

Author Affiliations

TraitemEnt, Modélisation d'Images & CommunicationS (TEMICS), Institut Rennes - Bretagne Atlantique Research Center (INRIA), Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes Cedex, France

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EURASIP Journal on Information Security 2008, 2008:414962  doi:10.1155/2008/414962

The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at: http://jis.eurasipjournals.com/content/2008/1/414962

Received:19 August 2008
Accepted:27 November 2008
Published:24 December 2008

© 2008 The Author(s).

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


We introduce the concept of reliability in watermarking as the ability of assessing that a probability of false alarm is very low and below a given significance level. We propose an iterative and self-adapting algorithm which estimates very low probabilities of error. It performs much quicker and more accurately than a classical Monte Carlo estimator. The article finishes with applications to zero-bit watermarking (probability of false alarm, error exponent), and to probabilistic fingerprinting codes (probability of wrongly accusing a given user, code length estimation).

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